On 9/11, Wild Horses, Symbols & Hope

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A round up in September could spell the end for a small herd of wild horses out West. Why that matters more than you think: a tale of bureaucracy and special interests, horse meat and hot flashes, and wrongs that wouldn’t be that hard to right.

Moments before September 11, 2001 turned into “9/11,” my cameraman, Norris, and I were driving into the Pryor wtcmountains along the Wyoming / Montana border to film a short segment for National Geographic on a wild horse round-up. I fiddled with the radio dial, trying to catch a few snippets of early morning NPR before the signal was swallowed by the scenery. Something about a plane hitting a building in NY…details still sketchy. Then static.

We didn’t really think too much about it. It wouldn’t have been the first plane to fly into a building there. New York has a history of bizarre accidents: car-swallowing sink holes, water main geysers, gravity-prone construction cranes. Things are constantly crashing and breaking and exploding and toppling in the Big Apple. That’s news?

Besides, we were traveling in a landscape so vast and ancient, so full of mythic drama, everything else fell away. We settled into our insignificance, staring out the window, trying to figure out how one endless vista managed to segue into the next. Yet in the stillness and eternity of that clear blue morning, we were surrounded by evidence of sudden, violent destruction: massive boulders strewn about like so many pebbles, gullies where water had once raged, trees scarred by lightning, twisted by wind.


By the time we reached the round up site, one tower had fallen and the second was burning. Like everything else airborne that day, helicopters that were to be used to hunt and herd the horses were immediately grounded and the round-up suspended. I climbed up a hill to try to get a cell signal to call my old editor at BusinessWeek. Amazingly the call went through, though we spoke for just a moment. I would learn later that from the 43rd floor midtown newsroom, they had a clear view of the carnage, but no idea whether colleagues working in the financial district had survived it.

I called family. I called National Geographic. “Stay put for now.”

For the next several days, Norris and I shuttled between a Motel 6, where we stayed up nights watching news on old televisions bolted into the cinder block walls of our rooms, and wandering the mountains by day with Ginger Kathrens, a filmmaker working on a documentary for the PBS show “Nature.” She had been following the horses for some time, using the story of young stallion she had first seen as a newborn foal and named “Cloud” as the centerpiece. Ginger, we quickly learned, was the Jane Goodall of wild horses. I am quite sure we wouldn’t have seen what were able to see without her. She knew all the horses’ haunts. She told us of their nuanced emotional lives, and of the dangers they faced from bears, mountain lions, lightning strikes. bitterly cold winters, parched summers and raging wildfires.

She could think like a wild horse. They trusted her. If we were with Ginger, we must be okay.

Ginger Kathrens has beeni filing the Pryor Mountain horses since 1995, producing a series of three documentaries for PBS "Nature." The latest installment, "Cloud: Challenge of the Stallions," premiers on October 25, 2009.

Ginger Kathrens has beeni filming the Pryor Mountain (a.k.a. Arrowhead Mountain) horses since 1995, producing a series of three documentaries for PBS "Nature." The latest installment, "Cloud: Challenge of the Stallions," premiers on October 25, 2009.

I sat on the bumper of our mud-splattered SUV, surveying a world with little evidence of humans. No contrails in the sky. No traffic hum. No buildings. No buildings burning. Nobody. Except for Norris – tall, calm, strong, quiet, silver-white curly hair glowing in the sun, making friends with a band of bachelor stallions. One by one, they came up to him and sniffed, then sniffed his camera. We ended up with quite the muzzle/nuzzle reel that trip.


Horses have always been the go-to symbol for the Wild West, embodying all we like to say makes this country special, made it great: strength, courage, independence, maverick (before “mavericky”), free. Yet for years, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), which controls vast stretches of public lands, has been circling like a patient predator, shrinking the area where horses can roam by millions of square acres, while painting them as feral invaders whose thirst and sharp hooves destroy grasslands, threatening the prosperity of cattle ranchers. Nevermind that the national cattle herd is almost 100 million strong, while the mustang population has dwindled from 2 million to fewer than 30,000 in the wild. Or that only about 2 million cattle actually use the range, or  that grazing leases are often scandalously cheap. The pressure is on as the endgame takes shape:

  • Five years ago, the Burns bill, a rider slipped into a massive 3,300 page federal appropriations bill just before the Congress adjourned for Thanksgiving break, made it easier to sell horse meat for consumption abroad.

Could a  few thousand horses really be that be that much of a bother to a handful of cattle ranchers? Is there a horse meat special interest lobby working in the shadows? Does the BLM really have a “Secret Plan To Destroy Wild Horses”?

Horse a-la-carte may indeed be worth more than horse-on-the-hoof. – as a staggeringly gruesome story out of Miami suggests. Seventeen horses in the area have recently been found butchered. No one knows who the killers are, but speculation is rife that an underground horse meat trade commanding prices as high as $40 per pound is behind the crime spree. The legal trade is also bigger than you might think, with ardent gourmands from Canada to France to Japan, where horse sashimi is a delicacy.


Back on the mountain top with the Pryor herd, such culinary preferences seem barbaric to the point of cannibalism. There is no question that these animals have intelligence, emotional sophistication, stories, memories and, in their own horse way, culture. They form family bands, which are fiercely defended. There is play and joy and love. There is sorrow and heartbreak.

Prehistoric orse painting from the Lascaux cave in France.

Prehistoric horse painting from the Lascaux cave in France.

In the five centuries since their ancestors galloped off from the Spanish conquistadors who brought them by ship  to the Americas, the Pryor horses have, in their alpine isolation, reverted back to a more primitive form. They have grown smaller overall, with many sporting zebra stripes on their legs and stripes along their backs as well. They are Lascaux horses come to life.

Prehistoric humans, of course, hunted and ate horse, but it was a survival-of-the-fittest battle of wits and cunning. In September, the Pryor horses will be rounded up by a small fleet of helicopters. They will be forced to run for miles over rough terrain, unable to fight or escape the relentless threatening din overhead. Finally, exhausted, they will be led into a coral by a “Judas” horse trained for the task. It will be a scene of hot, sweaty, dusty desperation as the horses are sorted and family bands torn apart. The air will be filled with the frantic cries of stallions separated from their mares.

Some horses will be allowed to return to the range. Some will be auctioned off. Some will end up in “temporary” holding pens where they could spend years in crowded misery. There are now 30,000 horses warehoused in conditions that defy even the loosest definition of humane.

Enter Madeleine Pickens, wife of billionaire T. Boone, who has a plan to adopt – and sterilize – the entire lot. This isn’t the first such attempt to return captured horses to the range, but it is, by far, the most ambitious. Whether it succeeds depends on whether bureaucrats can be coaxed to think beyond their usual boxes.


If not, it is hard to imagine that these horses won’t eventually end up at a slaughterhouse. Already, an estimated 100,000 horses are butchered each year, mostly at facilities in Mexico and Canada, according to a Humane Society of the United States info sheet.

Horses of virtually all ages and breeds are slaughtered, from draft types to miniatures. Horses commonly slaughtered include unsuccessful race horses, horses who are lame or ill, surplus riding school and camp horses, mares whose foals are not economically valuable, and foals who are “byproducts” of the Pregnant Mare Urine (PMU) industry, which produces the estrogen-replacement drug Premarin®. Ponies, mules, and donkeys are slaughtered as well.

The deeper you look, the uglier it gets. Premarin, a profitable menopause drug marketed by pharmaceutical giant Wyeth, requires estrogen harvested from the urine of pregnant mares. Mares remain tethered in their stalls for their entire 11 month pregnancies, while their offspring are born to die, sold for meat. So important is hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to the  company’s bottom line, Wyeth is currently embroiled in a scandal, alleged to have paid ghostwriters to play up HRT’s benefits in articles published by medical journals. This despite  a major clinical study in 2002 that concluded that HRT presents far more risks than benefits to women.

Surely, there must be a better biotech answer for hot flashes.


Horses sold for slaughter are often crammed into trucks designed for smaller animals, and neither fed nor watered adequately.

A couple of years ago, not far from where I live just north of Chicago, a semi packed with 59 horses overturned on a highway at night. The driver told police he was making a delivery from an auction in Indiana to a breeder in Minnesota, though many suspected the horses were ultimately destined for slaughter. Nineteen horses died from the accident. Another required extensive surgery. The owner was eventually fined $4,000 and senteced to supervision.

If indeed we are what we eat, bon appetit


Watching the horses in the Pryors on that saddest of September days felt like looking back in time to a better time. Horses – equines –  evolved in North America over tens of millions of years. There were dozens of species of every size and shape, adapted to all kinds of niches, surviving countless shifts in climate. But between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago they disappeared, wiped out along with an ark full of megafauna that included mammoths and camels (yes, camels).

Nevertheless, the equine family survived. Over their long history, some had trotted into Asia via the Bering land bridge, and from there branched into new species settling in Siberia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. It wasn’t until Columbus headed West in search of the Far East just over 500 years ago that horses once again were seen in their old home, the New World.

So are they feral invaders? Or is the story of the American horse more a “return of the native”?

It seems hard to believe that stone age hunters, even those armed with the sharpest of Clovis points, could have taken out a species so exquisitely refined by evolution to outrun a raft of tooth & claw predators and tough enough to survive in the most edgy of environments. The only way Norris and I managed to find the Pryor horses was with an SUV, a rough semblance of a road and an experienced guide. They were tucked away in mountain passes where only helicopters could ferret them out.

But perhaps the Pleistocene herds were weakened in some way. Maybe they faced a “perfect storm”: increased hunting pressure, the emergence of new diseases affecting both fertility and mortality, and the floods, fires and famines that came with an ice age giving way to a warmer planet.


Norris and I eventually drove home, absconding with our rented SUV for the cross-country journey while the airlines struggled to resume service. We knew, though, that as soon we left the Pryors, we would lose the protection of our unexpected Shangri-La. The grim reality of our world and time would be inescapable. As we headed east across the Minnesota border, NPR’s signal was finally strong enough to give the Rush Limbaugh station some competition. Miles flew by. Our hearts grew heavier.

The World Trade Center was just a smoking hole by the time I got to New York. Flyers with the faces of the missing were stapled to wooden walkways across the street from Ground Zero. I joined a silent procession walking past dazed and aching.



photo: Ginger Kathrens

In the years since, I have often thought about that week with the wild horses. Graced with grit, smarts and luck, they had managed to carve out something enduring. Whether the mountain ecosystem welcomed them or welcomed them back, they were now a seamless part of it. Their grazing shapes the grasslands. And as prey and carrion, they feed bears, mountain lions, vultures and eagles.

I often cover stories where hope is in short supply: Ice sheets melt. People starve. Women are raped. Pandemics threaten. Drugs are faked. Water is polluted. Fields are parched. People enslaved. Forests disappear. With so much so wrong, how can things possibly turn out well? Where do we even begin to make a dent? The reflex is to prioritize for triage, to figure out whether to go after open wounds or underlying causes. But it is all urgent.

So where do a few dozen, or a few hundred, or even a few thousand wild horses fit into the scheme of things? This is one of those rare instances when doing nothing (the Pryor round up), or doing something fairly easy (hashing out the Pickens’ proposal), or simply putting a stop to something (Premarin) could make a significant difference.

Doing right by horses is simply the right thing to do.

There is also a powerful symbolism. As the years go by, the rituals of 9/11 remembrance have begun to feel staged. We remember the date, not the day. The Twin Towers have faded into abstraction.

But the wild horses still endure in triumphant defiance. They are a legacy from our nation’s past and from an even deeper past. Their existence provides a gift of perspective, without which it will be that much harder to find our way.



September 12, 2009

Despite protests that included tens of thousands of emails, calls and faxes to BLM administrators, the pleas and prayers of a Crow elder, a last minute legal challenge and swell of too-late national news coverage, the round up of the Pryor Mountain wild horses went forward as planned last week.

It was everything feared and then some – as chronicled by filmmaker Ginger Kathrens’ daily blog posts. Observers weren’t always allowed to observe. The BLM waffled on its decision that captured horses would be available only for adoption (requires some vetting), opting to put some up for straight sale (no vetting). Since older horses are harder to train and thus less adoptable, they could languish in government holding pens for years or, potentially, end up in a slaughterhouse.

The youngest horses – even those returned to the wild – also face an uncertain future. Kathrens filmed a foal so lame, she could barely walk after being helicopter-herded for miles down rugged terrain, galloping from an alpine paradise at 8,000′ to a dusty desert corral at 3,000′.

Beyond the disturbing question of why our government is spending any time or money on such folly lies a question perhaps even more disturbing: Why there are so many foals on the mountain this late in the year? Foals are supposed to be born in spring so they can fatten up on summer’s sweet grasses to grow strong enough to survive Montana’s long harsh winters. Horses born too late in the sesason are at a severe disadvantage – as are their nursing mothers. Weakened by cold and dwindling forage, they are more vulnerable to disease and make easy marks for predators.

So what’s going on? What’s mucking with the equine reproductive clock? Something called Porcine Zona Pellucida or PZP, an “immunocontroceptive” designed to keep mares from conceiving. The vaccine triggers an immune response that alters the shape of sperm receptors on the surface of egg cells so sperm can’t get in.

Only, apparently, a few do…

Stallions will simply keep trying to get mares pregnant, even outside the normal mating season. Eventually, as the vaccine’s effects begin to wear off, they succeed.

Ironically, the young foal wobbling around in agony was a member of a band brought in to give mares shots of PZP.


Ginger Kathrens reports on the horses set free:

* ROAM – Restore Our American Mustangs



“Cloud: Challenge of the Stallions,” Ginger Kathrens’ third documentary for Nature (PBS) premiers on October 25, 2009 (preview)


“Cloud’s Legacy: The Stallion Returns” by Ginger Kathrens (book)

The Cloud Foundation: a not-profit started by Ginger Kathrens that focuses on wild horse issues

“Saving the American Wild Horse”: companion website for documentary by James Kleinert, featuring Viggo Mortensen & Sheryl Crow among other horse historians and experts; narrated by Peter Coyote:

The American Wild Horse Preservation Campaign

The Mystery of the Ancient Horses: an article speculating what may have happened to America’s Pleistocene Horses by J.A. Ginsburg

The Black Hills Wild Horse Sanctuary: author Dayton O. Hyde’s horse refuge in South Dakota

Help Save America’s Wild Horses: Madeleine Perkins’ website

14 Responses

  1. Janet:

    An amazing story. A cause for deep reflection!


  2. Sign Petition to Save Cloud’s Herd
    We need 5,000 signatures – please share this petition with friends!

    The round up of Cloud’s herd is scheduled for September 1st and 70 horses plus foals could lose their freedom and their families. Many of those removed would be horses in Cloud’s age group- even his 18 year old mother could be targeted for removal! This unnecessary removal must be stopped. Please sign this petition which will be sent to Secretary of Interior Ken Salazar and BLM Director Bob Abbey. Please click here to sign the petition- it only takes a moment!

  3. Words to Keep Them Wild and Free
    Worthy of Protection

    “They [wild horses and burros] belong to all the American people. The sprit which kept them alive and free against almost insurmountable odds typifies the national spirit which led to the growth of our Nation. They are living symbols of the rugged independence and tireless energy of our pioneer heritage.” — Senate Report (Interior and Insular Affairs Committee), June 25, 1971

    “The committee wishes to emphasize that the management of the wild free-roaming horses and burros be kept to a minimum both from the aspect of reducing costs of such a program as well as to deter the possibility of “zoolike” developments. An intensive management program of breeding, branding, and physical care would destroy the very concept that this legislation seeks to preserve. … leaving the animals alone to fend for themselves and placing primary emphasis on protecting the animals from continued slaughter and harassment by man.”
    — Senate Report (Interior and Insular Affairs Committee), June 25, 1971

    “It is the expressed intent of the committee to remove the possibility of monetary gain from the exploitation of these animals.” — Senate Report (Interior and Insular Affairs Committee), June 25, 1971

    “Wild” by Nature

    “The wild horse may in fact be an exotic species in Australia, New Zealand, and a few other locations around the world, but it is certainly not so in North America. Horses evolved on this continent only to later disappear, possibly at the hand of man. After what can only be viewed as seconds on the hands of evolution’s clock, the horse was returned by the same hand to resume its place among the same animals and plants with which it had evolved. To label the North American wild horse as an exotic ignores the facts of time and evolutionary history.”
    — Into the Wind by Dr. Jay F. Kirkpatrick, 1994

    “… after years of domestication, they [wild horses] have adapted so successfully to life in the wild. If these horses are really as healthy and as sound as they appear, then there is probably a lot we can learn from them…. For this reason, I have come to think of them as embodying the spirit of the “natural horse,” nature’s model of the ideal horse fitted to the rigors of survival without the need of human intervention.” — The Natural Horse by Jaime Jackson, 1992

    No Overpopulation

    “How are continuing drought conditions likely to affect Nevada’s wild horse and burro populations? — Census data suggests that continuing drought conditions are resulting in reduced reproductive rates for many wild horse herds throughout Nevada. Many of Nevada’s herd management areas (HMAs) are currently below appropriate management level (AML) due to lower reproduction and the removal of excess horses since FY2000.” — BLM handout distributed to the Nevada Wildlife Commission, April 2003.

    “One of the major focuses of conservation biology and genetic management of small populations is the preservation of genetic variability. This topic is of particular relevance to the Wild Horse and Burro Program because the majority of wild equid populations managed by the BLM are kept at population sizes that are small enough for the loss of genetic variation to be a real concern. Because a loss of genetic variability can lead to a reduction in fertility or viability of individuals in a population, it is critical that genetic considerations be included in management plans for wild equid populations.” -– “Genetic Variation in Horse Populations” by E. Gus Cothran, PhD., Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky in BLM Resource Notes, No. 27.

    “… only 25% of the 186 herds under active management have a population objective of greater than 150 horses. The small size of these herds raised concerns about long-term maintenance of genetic viability and questions on the best methods to manage population sizes to sustain genetic variation…. At low population numbers, dramatic loss of genetic variation over a short period is possible. Low genetic variability can result in decreased fecundity, increased mortality, decreased disease resistance, and an overall loss of vigor.” — Singer, F.J. and K.A. Schoenecker, compilers. Managers’ summary – Ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997. U.S. Geological Survey, Midcontinent Ecological Sciences Center, Fort Collins, CO, 2000.

    “From an estimated population of 14,000 in 1974 to an estimated AML of 2,750 in 2005, there will be an 80% reduction in the wild burro population…. Wild burro habitat has been reduced by 45%.” — “A Strategy to Achieve and Manage Wild Burros at Appropriate Management Levels,” BLM, June 2000.

    Wild Horses and Burros as Scapegoats

    “Wild horse removals have not demonstrably improved range conditions for several reasons. First, wild horses are vastly outnumbered on federal rangelands by domestic livestock…. Second, wild horse behavior patterns make the horses somewhat less damaging than cattle to especially vulnerable range areas…. Third, wild horse removals have taken place in some locations not being damaged by widespread overgrazing…. Fourth, in many areas where wild horse removals have taken place, BLM authorized livestock grazing levels have either not been reduced or have been increased thereby largely negating any reduction in forage consumption. – GAO Report, “Rangeland Management: Improvements Needed in Federal Wild Horse Program,” August 1990.

    “The Environmental Protection Agency concluded that riparian conditions throughout the West are now the worst in American history – livestock grazing is a primary reason.” — “Land Held Hostage” by Thomas L. Fleischner, Ph.D., in Welfare Ranching: The Subsidized Destruction of the American West, edited by George Wuerthner and Mollie Matteson, 2002

    “BLM could not provide us with data to demonstrate where wild horse removals have materially improved the specific areas from which they have been removed.” – GAO Report, “Rangeland Management: Improvements Needed in Federal Wild Horse Program,” August 1990.

    BLM’s Failure

    “Little has changed since the 1990 GAO report. Formal BLM determinations of wild horse carrying capacities are as elusive as the creatures themselves. Wild horse management decisions continue to be made within the BLM on a political rather than a scientific basis and in the political balance between horse and cow, the cattle industry almost always wins. – Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, “Horses to Slaughter: Anatomy of a Coverup within the Wild Horse and Burro Program of the Bureau of Land Management,” April 1997.

    Beginning a few years after publication of Desertification, and continuing through the mid-1990s, the General Accounting Office prepared a number of reports – some of them scathing indictments – on the grazing program of both the BLM and Forest Service…. The GAO consistently identified overgrazing as the principal cause of deteriorating western range conditions. — The Western Range Revisited by Dr. Debra L. Donahue, 1999.

    “The federal government has even taken to rounding up thousands of wild horses and burros and handing them over to ranchers and others in the misguided belief that these small numbers of animals pose a competitive threat to the millions of cattle grazing on public lands.” — Beyond Beef: The Rise and Fall of the Cattle Culture by Jeremy Rifkin, 1992.

    “The government’s continued lackadaisical attitude toward the mustangs makes it necessary for private conservation groups to constantly remain alert and follow the administration and enforcement of the law. Otherwise, the horses’ traditional enemies will succeed in slowly but surely eliminating them.” — The Politics of Extinction by Lewis Regenstein, 1975.

    Save Money and Wild Horses and Burros

    “…reducing authorized grazing levels would likely be cheaper than wild horse removals to achieve the same reduction in forage consumption. BLM’s livestock grazing management program operates at a substantial loss. Reducing the size of the domestic livestock program could, if accompanied by proportionate reductions in management costs, generate significant savings. Further livestock reductions in place of wild horse removals would save the substantial expense of rounding up and disposing of the horses. — GAO Report, “Rangeland Management: Improvements Needed in Federal Wild Horse Program, August 1990.

    “Changes in federal policy on grazing on public lands will not lead to a catastrophic collapse of the economies of the West. Only a tiny sliver of those economies rely on federal grazing.” — “Taking Stock of Public Lands Grazing” by Dr. Thomas M. Powers in Welfare Ranching: The Subsidized Destruction of the American West, edited by George Wuerthner and Mollie Matteson, 2002

    “Propped up buy more than $100 million last year in taxpayer subsidies, a small number of ranchers continue a practice that began in the Wild West 150 years ago… Who benefits? Mostly the rich. The Mercury News reviewed more than 26,000 federal billing records and found corporations, millionaires and ‘Rolex’ ranchers dominating the public range.” — “Cash Cows” by San Jose Mercury News staff writers, Paul Rogers and Jennifer LaFleur, in the San Jose Mercury News, November 7, 1999.

  4. This is an incredibly insightful and comprehensive telling of the situation for horses all — both the wild icons of American freedom that our government is hellbent on wiping out and every other sort domestic that provide companionship and serve in so many different ways…racing, police horses, therapy horses, sport horses…much more. It says everything about us that these horses, so simply and intrinsically good are treated with casual, callous indifference. It would be so easy to make the effort to fix the “wrongs that wouldn’t be that hard to right..”

    Beautifully told.

  5. Beautifully-researched and well-crafted. Thank you. Encore!

  6. We need this to be published in the NY Times, SF Chronicle, Washington Post etc— you compile all this madness amazingly well. Thank you, Janet. -MS

  7. […] Tracker Blog- writer Janet Ginsberg wraps everything up along with multiple videos and links– … […]

  8. Thank you much for your efforts and your belief in the freedom of wild horses. I hope you will continue to write and speak out through out this strange war. It is the horses turn to win as more people come to feel what you and Ginger express. Mar

  9. Fantastically well put together article and love the videos and all the links. Thank you so much and so hope it helps more people stand up for our wild horses.

  10. Absolutely beautiful, well-documented and researched story – thank you, thank you for your efforts and words on behalf of these creatures.

  11. This should be required reading for EVERY American.

  12. The new Cloud program, Cloud: Challenge of the Stallions, will air on October 25thon PBS stations nationwide. Let’s keep up the momentum to stop or at the least, limit, the massive roundups already underway. 20-plus million acres have already been taken away from the wild herds and they should be returned. Plan a get-together to watch the new show and then write letters to your senators and take action to preserve and protect all our wild herds.
    RSS: I-Team Special: The Stampede …
    on KLAS – Top Story News
    2 days ago
    On Saturday the award winning I-Team aired a special detailing the long history of alleged mismanagement in the BLM’s wild horse and burro program. Inside, you can watch all five segments of the one-hour special on LasVegasNOW.com.

    Please send your stories to MICHAEL MOORE, and ask for him to do a feature documentary on the gross government mismanagement of our wild horses and burros.

  13. Ginger Kathrens is coming to Chicago to talk about the complex and beautiful world of America’s wild horses, what they are facing, how America is losing them, and how we can stop their systematic extermination. Events begin December 10th. For more information on where Kathrens is appearing, go to http://www.thecloudfoundation.org

  14. […] Today found this great post, here is a quick excerpt : Tracker Blog- writer Janet Ginsberg wraps everything up along with multiple videos and links– … […] Reply · Marly Wargo, on September 14th, 2009 at 7:27 am Said: Thank you much for your efforts and your belief in the freedom of wild … Read the rest of this great post Here […]

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